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Color Atlas of Anatomy Johannes W. Johannes W. This book is protected by copyright.

Table of Contents

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, including as photocopies or scanned-in or other electronic copies, or utilized by any information storage and retrieval system without written permission from the copyright owner, except for brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Materials appearing in this book prepared by individuals as part of their official duties as U. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of the publication.

Application of this information in a particular situation remains the professional responsibility of the practitioner; the clinical treatments described and recommended may not be considered absolute and universal recommendations. The authors, editors, and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accordance with the current recommendations and practice at the time of publication.

However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug.

Some drugs and medical devices presented in this publication have Food and Drug Administration FDA clearance for limited use in restricted research settings. It is the responsibility of the health care provider to ascertain the FDA status of each drug or device planned for use in their clinical practice.

To purchase additional copies of this book,call our customer service department at or fax orders to International customers should call ISBN: Prof. Chung, Ph. V We would like to express our great gratitude to all coworkers who helped to make the Color Atlas of Anatomy a success. We are particularly indebted to those who dissected new specimens with great skill and knowledge, particularly to Jeff Bryant member of our staff and Dr.

We would also like to thank Dr. Okamoto now Nagasaki, Japan , who dissected many excellent specimens of the fourth edition, also included in the fifth edition. Furthermore, we are greatly indebted to Prof. Neuhuber and his coworkers for their great efforts in supporting our work. The specimens of the previous editions also depicted in this volume were dissected with great skill and enthusiasm by Prof.

Nagashima now Nagasaki, Japan , Dr. Mutsuko Takahashi now Tokyo, Japan , Dr. We are greatly indebted to Prof. Kyung Won Chung, Ph. Acknowledgements We would also like to express our many thanks to Prof. We are also greatly indebted to Mr. Finally, we would like to express our great gratitude to our photographer, Mr. Excellent and untiring work was done by our secretaries, Mrs.

Annette Gack, who not only performed excellent new drawings but revised effectively the layout of the new edition. Last but not least, we would like to express our sincere thanks to all scientists, students, and other coworkers, particularly to the ones at the publishing companies themselves. Erlangen, Germany; Spring J.

Rohen C. Yokochi E. Each chapter is provided with an introductory front page to give an overview of the topics of the chapter and short descriptions. Furthermore, the drawings were revised and improved in many chapters and depicted more consistently.


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In most of the chapters new photographs taken from newly dissected specimens were incorporated. The general structure and arrangement of the Atlas were main- tained. The chapters of regional anatomy are consequently placed behind the systematic descriptions of the anatomical structures so that students can study — e. For studying the photographs of the specimens the use of a magnifier might be helpful. The enormous plasticity of the photos is surprising, especially at higher magnifications. In many places new MRI and CT scans were added to give consi- deration to the new imaging techniques which become more and more important for the student in preclinics.

We would like to express our sincere thanks to Prof. Heuck,Munich,who provided us with the MRI scans. In the underlying seventh edition photographs of the surface anatomy of the human body were included again. We omitted marks and indications in order not to affect the quality of the pictures. Despite numerous additions and amendments the size of the volume did not increase so that students both in preclinics and in clinics are offered an atlas easy to handle and cope with. While preparing this new edition, the authors were reminded of how precisely, beautifully, and admirably the human body is constructed.

If this book helps the student or medial doctor to appreciate the overwhelming beauty of the anatomical architecture of tissues and organs in the human, then it greatly fulfils its task. We would like to express our great gratitude to all coworkers for their skilled work. Without their help the improvements of the Color Atlas of Anatomy would not have been possible.

VI Today there exist any number of good anatomic atlases. Conse- quently, the advent of a new work requires justification. We found three main reasons to undertake the publication of such a book. First of all, most of the previous atlases contain mainly schematic or semischematic drawings which often reflect reality only in a limited way; the third dimension, i. Thus he has the advantage of immediate orientation by photographic specimens while working with the cadaver. Secondly, some of the existing atlases are classified by systemic rather than regional aspects.

As a result, the student needs several books each supplying the necessary facts for a certain region of the body. The present atlas, however, tries to portray macroscopic anatomy with regard to the regional and stratigraphic aspects of the object itself as realistically as possible.

Hence it is an imme- diate help during the dissection courses in the study of medical and dental anatomy. Another intention of the authors was to limit the subject to the essential and to offer it didactically in a way that is self-explana- tory. To all regions of the body we added schematic drawings of the main tributaries of nerves and vessels, of the course and mechanism of the muscles, of the nomenclature of the various regions, etc.

This will enhance the understanding of the details seen in the photographs. The complicated architecture of the skull bones, for example, was not presented in a descriptive way, but rather through a series of figures revealing the mosaic of bones by adding one bone to another, so that ultimately the composition of skull bones can be more easily understood. Finally, the authors also considered the present situation in medical education.

On one hand there is a universal lack of cadavers in many departments of anatomy, while on the other hand there has been a considerable increase in the number of students almost everywhere. As a consequence, students do not have access to sufficient illustrative material for their anatomic studies. Of course, photos can never replace the immediate observation, but we think the use of a macroscopic photo instead of a painted, mostly idealized picture is more appropriate and is an improvement in anatomic study over drawings alone. The majority of the specimens depicted in the atlas were prepared by the authors either in the Dept.

The specimens of the chapter on the neck and those of the spinal cord demonstrating the dorsal branches of the spinal nerves were prepared by Dr. Schmidt with great skill and enthusiasm.

Atlas of Human Anatomy

The specimens of the ligaments of the vertebral column were prepared by Dr. Mokrusch, and a great number of specimens in the chapter of the upper and lower limb was very carefully prepared by Dr. Nagashima, Kurume, Japan. Once again, our warmest thanks go out to all of our coworkers for their unselfish, devoted and highly qualified work. The principle of polarity: Polarity is reflected mainly in the formal and functional contrast between the head predominantly spherical form and the extremities radially arranged skeletal elements.

In the phylogenetic development of the upright position of the human body, polarity developed also among the extremities: The lower extremities provide the basis for locomotion whereas the upper extremities are not needed anymore for locomotion, so they can be used for gesture, manual and artistic activities. The principle of segmentation: This principle dominates in the trunk. The anatomical structures vertebrae, pairs of ribs, muscles, and nerves are arranged segmentally and replicate rhythmically in a similar way.

The principle of bilateral symmetry: Both sides of the body are separated by a midsagittal plane and resemble each other like image and mirror-image. There are also different principles in the architecture and function of the inner organs: The skull contains the brain and the sensory organs.


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  6. They are arranged like mirror and mirror-image and are the basis of our consciousness. The thorax contains the organs of the rhythmic system heart, lung , which are only to some extent bilaterally organized. The conscious- ness feeling, etc. In the abdominal cavity, the most important abdominal organs intesti- nal tract, liver, pancreas are arranged unpaired.

    Their functions remain subconscious. Coronal section through the thoracic and abdominal cavity. Horizontal section through the head at the level of the eyes. This enables physicians to localize the inner organs. On the ventral side, the clavicle, sternum, ribs, and intercostal spaces are palpable. Further- more, the anterior iliac spine and the symphysis can be localized. For better orientation, several lines of orienta- tion are used, e.

    By means of these lines, the heart and the position of the vermiform process can be localized. Regional lines and palpable points at the ventral side of the human body. The main cavities of the body and their contents. Lines of orientation are the paravertebral line, the scapular line, the posterior axillary line, and the iliac crest. Position of the inner organs of the human body posterior aspect. Horizontal section through the pelvic cavity and the hip joints. MRI scan through the pelvic cavity and the hip joints horizon- tal or axial or transverse plane.

    Skeleton of a female adult posterior aspect.

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    The zones of the cartilaginous growth plates are seen arrows. In contrast to the adult, the ribs show a predominantly horizontal position. Coronal section of the proximal and distal epiphyses displaying the spongy bone and the medullary cavity. Three-dimensional representation on the trajectorial lines of the femoral head according to B. X-ray of the right femur and the hip joint a. Here, the medullary cavity develops.

    The ossifica- tion process of limb bones is not finished at birth. Arrows: distal epiphysis. X-ray of the upper and lower limb of a newborn child left: upper limb, right: lower limb. Arrows: ossification centers. Elbow joint with ligaments as an example of a hinge joint monaxial humero-ulnar joint in combination with a pivot joint monaxial radio-ulnar joint , which allows rotation. Coronal section of the elbow joint MRI scan, courtesy of Prof. Heuck, Munich. The possibilities of movement are shown in the schematic drawings on p. Ball-and-socket joint with its different axes schematic drawing.

    Arrows: axes of movement. The joints of the fingers, however, are monaxial. Joints exhibit a variety of functions. In general, mobility becomes reduced in the direction from proximal to distal. The hip joint, e. Pivot joint e. Hinge joint e.

    Left: extension, right: flexion. Saddle joint e. Coronal section of the shoulder joint MRI scan, from Heuck et al. Joints are places of articulation allowing movements between bones. Synovial joints are characterized by a joint cavity enclosed by a joint capsule containing synovial fluid, which is produced by the articular capsule. The kind of movements depends not only on form and structure of the articulating bones but also on ligaments incorporated into the articular capsule.

    In some synovial joints, fibrocartilagenous articular discs develop, when the articulating surfaces of the bones are incongruous. The architecture of the muscles depends on the functional systems in which they are involved, i.

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    The movements themselves vary to a great extent indi- vidually. The flexor retinaculum protects the flexor tendons passing through the carpal tunnel arrow. The highly differentiated movements are coordinated by special groups of muscles synergists. Their counterparts are called antagonists. Movements can only be carried out harmoniously if the contraction of the synergists are supported by a corre- sponding dilatation of the antagonists. This interaction is controlled by the nervous system.

    In order to carry out certain directions of movements, often the tendons of muscles have to be directed by ligaments. At those places, the tendons often develop synovial sheaths, e. Ventral aspect of the right arm. The biceps muscle appears slightly contracted. In the area of the elbow joint, several subcutaneous veins can be recognized. Holik, Spardorf. Frontal section of the shoulder joint compare with the two pictures above. Anterior thoracic wall, pericardium, and epicardium have been removed.

    The trachea is divided. In the right ventricle, the venous blood is collected and pumped through the pulmonary artery and into the lung where the blood is oxygenated. The veins of the lung transport the blood to the left ventricle, where it is pumped through the aorta and its branches arteries in the human body. Arteries and veins mostly run parallel. The venous blood from the intestine reaches the liver via the portal vein. Organization of the circulatory systems in the human body. The center of this system represents the heart.

    Course of the main lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in the body. Major lymph vessels of the trunk green. Lymphatic vessels originate in the tissue spaces lymph capillaries and unite to form larger vessels lymphatics. These resemble veins but have a much thinner wall, more valves, and are interrupted by lymph nodes at various intervals. Large groups of lymph nodes are located in the inguinal and axillary regions, deep to the mandible and sternocleidomastoid muscle, and within the root of the mesentery of the intestine. The lymphatic vessels of the right half of the head and neck, the right thorax, and the right upper limb drain toward the right venous angle; those of the rest of the body, toward the left venous angle.

    The solar plexus with its connection to the vagus nerve and the sympathetic trunk has been dissected. Diagram illustrating the localization of the three functional portions of the nervous system brain, spinal cord and autonomic nervous system. The cranial part, which comprises the great sensory organs and the brain.