Montroig, late summer—fall Karl Schmidt-Rottluff. Sol LeWitt. A short film. Today, any film running for 40 minutes or less and therefore not considered long enough to be a feature-length film. A mechanical device for controlling the aperture, or opening, in a camera through which light passes to the film or plate. By opening and closing for different amounts of time, the shutter determines the length of the photographic exposure. A rendering of the basic elements of a composition, often made in a loosely detailed or quick manner. Sketches can be both finished works of art or studies for another composition.
Related: Constructing Gender. A substance capable of dissolving another material. In painting, the solvent is a liquid that thins the paint. Sounds that are most often added during editing, rather than recorded at the time of filming. Sound effects take a number of different forms.
Related: Walt Disney, Ub Iwerks. A sound technology, first developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s. In this system, music and dialogue were recorded on waxed records that were played in sync with the film via a turntable connected to a film projector through an interlocking mechanism. A sound technology, initially developed in the early 20th century, that became commercially viable in the late s and eventually supplanted the sound-on-disc system.
In sound-on-film, sound waves were converted into light waves that were then photographically inscribed onto the film itself. This allowed for a single strip of film to carry both pictures and the soundtrack, which was imprinted alongside the pictures and read by special projectors.
Related: Experimentation with Sound. In artistic contexts, paint thinned by a considerable amount of solvent. Stains are absorbed into the canvas, rather than remaining on its surface. An impervious material perforated with letters, shapes, or patterns through which a substance passes to a surface below. Related: Philip-Lorca diCorcia. To represent in or make conform to a particular style, especially when highly conventionalized or artistic rather than naturalistic.
Related: Simone Forti. In popular writing about psychology, the division of the mind containing the sum of all thoughts, memories, impulses, desires, feelings, etc. Montroig, late summer—fall Louise Bourgeois. Bohemians from the series Menschen des 20 Jahrhunderts Citizens of the 20th century Cindy Sherman. Le Perreux-sur-Marne, Richard Avedon. Awe-inspiring or worthy of reverence.
In philosophy, literature, and the arts, the sublime refers to a quality of greatness that is beyond all calculation. A term coined by Russian artist Kazimir Malevich in to describe a new mode of abstract painting that abandoned all reference to the outside world. His new style claimed "the supremacy of pure feeling or perception in the pictorial arts" and rejected the deliberate illusions of representational painting.
Montroig, July —winter Joseph Cornell. Paris, June—July Philippe Halsman. A form, sign, or emblem that represents something else, often something immaterial, such as an idea or emotion. April Hito Steyerl. Leni Riefenstahl. Modern Portraits Vincent van Gogh. Related: Senga Nengudi. Meret Oppenheim. Paris, Senga Nengudi. The method with which an artist, writer, performer, athlete, or other producer employs technical skills or materials to achieve a finished product or endeavor.
A painting medium in which colored pigment is mixed with a water-soluble binder, such as egg yolk; a painting done in this medium. The state of being stretched or strained; in construction, the level of tautness when a load is applied to a structure. An international, middle-class artistic movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries that emphasized the unity of the arts and sought to reflect the intensive psychic and sensory stimuli of the modern city.
The version commonly referred to as Art Nouveau flourished in France and Belgium and was characterized by sinuous, asymmetrical lines based on organic forms. Its more rectilinear counterpart, called Jugendstil or Secession style, flourished concurrently in Germany and Central Europe. Related: Eva Hesse. A figurative or metaphorical use of a word or expression; a significant or recurrent theme; a motif. A turpentine burn is made by soaking a rag in solvent and scrubbing the canvas directly.
This technique removes paint and leaves a stain on the canvas. A particular design of type. Characters in typefaces include letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and symbols. The term is often confused with font, which is a specific style and size of a typeface. A position or place that affords an advantageous perspective; in photography, the position from which a photographer has taken a photograph.
A type of theatrical variety show, developed in the early s in America, that remained the most popular form of entertainment until radio and film supplanted it in the late s. It incorporated an array of short performances like singing, ventriloquism, plate-spinning, contortionists, dancing, performing animals, and, at its heart, comedy.
Reflecting both the cultural diversity of earlyth-century America and its prejudices, vaudeville fused such traditions as the English Music Hall, minstrel shows of antebellum America, and Yiddish theater. Images by amateur photographers of everyday life and subjects, commonly in the form of snapshots. The term is often used to distinguish everyday photography from fine art photography. A term describing moving-image artworks recorded onto magnetic tape or digital formats, or generated using other mechanisms such as image-processing tools, and available for immediate playback.
Related: Bill Morrison. A camera that captures moving images and converts them into electronic signals so that they can be saved on a storage device, such as videotape or a hard drive, or viewed on a monitor.
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The thickness of a liquid. In painting, the viscosity of oil paints is altered by adding a binder such as linseed oil or a solvent such as turpentine. Related: Franz Kline. Paints composed of pigments ground to an extremely fine texture in an aqueous solution of gum Arabic or gum tragacanth.
The absence of white fillers, such as those in gouache, creates a medium with luminous transparency. A process of joining two pieces of metal together by heating the surfaces to the point of melting and then pressing them together. Related: David Smith.
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A photographic process invented in by F. Scott Archer, in which a glass plate, coated with light-sensitive collodion emulsion, is placed in a camera, exposed, developed, and varnished for protection before being used to create prints. In photography and filmmaking, a shot that reveals much of the context or setting, or a large group of people. An association of Vienna-based visual artists, craftspeople, and designers established in around the idea that fashionable art, design, furniture, and household goods should be accessible to everyone.
A printmaking technique that involves printing an image from a carved plank of wood. The image is cut into the wood using tools such as chisels, gouges, and knives. Raised areas of the image are inked and printed, while cut away or recessed areas do not receive ink and appear blank on the printed paper. Woodcuts can be printed on a press or by hand, using a spoon or similar tool to rub the back of the paper.
Winter Moonlit Night Wintermondnacht. Among the most famous of President Franklin D. The WPA ran from to and employed millions of people, including artists, to carry out public works projects across the United States. A pre-cinematic device consisting of a cylindrical drum with evenly spaced vertical slits cut into its sides. Its interior held a paper strip printed with sequential drawn or photographic images, which would appear animated when the drum was spun. Abstract A term generally used to describe art that is not representational or based on external reality or nature.
Abstract Expressionism The dominant artistic movement in the s and s, Abstract Expressionism was the first to place New York City at the forefront of international modern art. Abstraction Non-representational works of art that do not depict scenes or objects in the world or have discernable subject matter. Academic Of or relating to the conservative style of art promoted by an official academy.
Actuality A nonfiction film, usually lasting no more than one to two minutes, showing unedited, unstructured footage of real events, places, people, or things. Aesthetic Relating to or characterized by a concern with beauty or good taste adjective ; a particular taste or approach to the visual qualities of an object noun. Allover painting A canvas covered in paint from edge to edge and from corner to corner, in which each area of the composition is given equal attention and significance.
Aluminum Aluminum is a relatively soft, durable, lightweight, ductile, and malleable metal with appearance ranging from silvery to dull gray. Angular An object, outline, or shape having sharp corners, or angles. Appropriation As an artistic strategy, the intentional borrowing, copying, and alteration of preexisting images, objects, and ideas.
Architecture The science, art, or profession of designing and constructing buildings, bridges, and other large structures. Artifice Deception or trickery. Arts and Crafts movement Informal movement in design and architecture that championed the unity of the arts, the experience of the individual craftsperson, and the qualities of materials and construction in the work itself. Assemblage A three-dimensional work of art made from combinations of materials including found objects or non-traditional art materials.
Automatism Strategies of writing or creating art that aimed to access the unconscious mind. B movie A low-budget movie, especially one made for use as a companion to the main attraction in a double feature.
Background The area of an artwork that appears farthest away from the viewer; also, the area against which a figure or scene is placed. Ball Bearing A type of bearing designed to reduce friction, a force that resists motion between moving parts. Baroque A term meaning extravagant, complex; applied to a style in art and architecture developed in Europe from the early seventeenth to mid-eighteenth century, emphasizing dramatic, often strained effect and typified by bold, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts.
Batik A wax-resist dyeing technique that is often used to make highly patterned cloth. Bauhaus The school of art and design founded in Germany by Walter Gropius in , and shut down by the Nazis in Beat A member of the Beat Generation, a group of American writers and artists popular in the s and early s, influenced by Eastern philosophy and religion and known especially for their use of nontraditional forms and their rejection of conventional social values.
Ben-Day dots Colored dots generally in four colors: cyan, magenta, yellow, and black used to create shading and secondary colors in the mechanical reproduction of images. Binder A component of paint that creates uniform consistency or cohesion. Biomorphic Derived from the Greek words bios life and morphe form , a term referring to abstract forms or images that evoke associations with living forms such as plants and the human body. Brocade A heavy fabric interwoven with a rich, raised design. Brushwork The manner in which a painter applies paint with a brush.
Built Environment Human-made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity. Byzantine Empire An empire of the eastern Mediterranean region, dating from AD , when the Roman Empire was partitioned into eastern and western portions. Calligraphy Decorative handwriting or lettering. Canon A group of artistic, literary, or musical works that are generally accepted as representing a field. Canvas A closely woven, sturdy cloth of hemp, cotton, linen, or a similar fiber, frequently stretched over a frame and used as a surface for painting.
Caricature A rendering, usually a drawing, of a person or thing with exaggerated or distorted features, meant to satirize the subject. Cartes-de-visite Small handheld photographic cards, first popularized in the s. Celluloid The first synthetic plastic material, developed in the s and s from a combination of camphor and nitrocellulose. Censorship The act, process, or practice of examining books, films, or other material to remove or suppress what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable. Ceramics Objects, such as pots and vases, made of clay hardened by heat. Choreography The art of creating and arranging dances or ballets; a work created by this art.
Chromogenic color print Photographs made from a positive color transparency or a negative. Cinematographer The person who sets up both camera and lighting for each shot in a film, the cinematographer has a major influence over the look and feel of a shot or scene, and is often as highly esteemed as the director. City planner An individual who helps guide and shape the future development of a community. Cityscape An image with urban scenery as its primary focus; an urban environment. Cladding A metal covering that sheathes a metal structure. Classicism The principles embodied in the styles, theories, or philosophies of the art of ancient Greece and Rome.
Color The perceived hue of an object, produced by the manner in which it reflects or emits light into the eye. Color Field paintings Paintings of large areas of color, typically with no strong contrasts of tone or obvious focus of attention. Column A decorative or structural feature, most often composed of stone, typically having a cylindrical or polygonal shaft. Combine The technique of affixing cast-off items to a traditional support, like a canvas.
Commission To request, or the request for, the production of a work of art. Complementary colors Colors located opposite one another on the color wheel. Composition The arrangement of the individual elements within a work of art so as to form a unified whole; also used to refer to a work of art, music, or literature, or its structure or organization. Concentric Two or more things having a common center.
Conceptual art Art that emerged in the late s, emphasizing ideas and theoretical practices rather than the creation of visual forms. Construct Something formed or constructed from parts. Constructivism Developed by the Russian avant-garde at the time of the October Revolution of Content The subject matter or significance of a work of art, especially as contrasted with its form. Contour The outline of something. Contrast photography In photography, the range of light to dark areas in the composition. Convention General agreement on or acceptance of certain practices or attitudes; a widely used and accepted device or technique, as in drama, literature, or visual art.
Cor-Ten steel A steel alloy that develops a rust-like appearance when exposed to weather for several years, eliminating the need for repainting. Costume What a figure is wearing. Cropping In photography, editing, typically by removing the outer edges of the image. Cubism Originally a term of derision used by a critic in , Cubism describes the work of Pablo Picasso, Georges Braque, and those influenced by them.
Cultural icon A person, symbol, object, or place that is widely recognized or culturally significant to a large group of people. Culture The customs, arts, social institutions, and achievements of a particular nation, people, or other social group. Curator A person whose job it is to research and manage a collection and organize exhibitions.
Dada An artistic and literary movement formed in response to the disasters of World War I —18 and to an emerging modern media and machine culture. Decorative Arts A term used to describe the design and aesthetics of functional objects with an emphasis on unique and hand-crafted forms often available in limited quantity. Design brief A written record describing the elements and scope of a design project.
Designer A person who conceives and gives form to objects used in everyday life. Diptych A work of art consisting of two sections or panels, usually hinged together. Direct Cinema A method of documentary filmmaking developed in the late s and early s in the US and Canada, in which filmmakers sought to capture their subjects as directly as possible. Direct positive A photographic term referring to a positive image made directly by exposure to light and by development without the use of a negative.
Documentary film A genre encompassing nonfiction films intended to capture some aspect of reality, often for the purposes of instruction, education, or the development of a historical record. Documentary photography A genre of photography that aims to objectively chronicle a subject or event. Double exposure In photography and filmmaking, a technique in which film is exposed twice to capture and merge two different images in a single frame. Draftsman A person who draws plans or designs, often of structures to be built; a person who draws skillfully, especially an artist.
Drypoint An intaglio printmaking technique that creates sharp lines with fuzzy, velvety edges. Earthwork Artistic manipulation of the natural landscape, typically though not exclusively enacted on a large scale. Elevation A scale drawing of the side, front, or back of a structure. Embroidery The craft of decorating fabric or other materials with thread or yarn using a needle. Emulsion A combination of two or more liquids that do not blend easily on their own, such as oil and water. Enamel A type of paint made from very fine pigments and resin that form a glossy surface.
Enlargement A photographic print that is bigger than the original negative.
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Ephemera Transitory written and printed matter receipts, notes, tickets, clippings, etc. Etching An intaglio printmaking technique that creates thin, fluid lines whose effects can vary from graceful and serpentine to tight and scratchy. Exposure The action of exposing a photographic film to light or other radiation.
Expression A facial aspect indicating an emotion; also, the means by which an artist communicates ideas and emotions. Expressionism Encompasses varying stylistic approaches that emphasize intense personal expression. Exquisite Corpse A game in which each participant takes turns writing or drawing on a sheet of paper, folds it to conceal his or her contribution, then passes it to the next player for a further contribution. Facade Any public-facing side of a building, often featuring decorative finishes. Fauvism A style of painting in the first decade of the 20th century that emphasized strong, vibrant color and bold brushstrokes over realistic or representational qualities.
Feminist art Art seeking to challenge the dominance of men in both art and society, to gain recognition and equality for women artists, and to question assumptions about womanhood. Figurative Representing a form or figure in art that retains clear ties to the real world. Figure A representation of a human or animal form in a work of art. Film 1. Film still A photograph taken during the production of a film that shows a particular moment or scene. Filmmaker A person who directs or produces movies. Font A specific size and style of a typeface design for example, Arial 12pt bold, or Times New Roman 10pt italics.
Foreground The area of an image—usually a photograph, drawing, or painting—that appears closest to the viewer. Form The shape or structure of an object. Formal Relating to the shape or structure of an object. Found objects An object—often utilitarian, manufactured, or naturally occurring—that was not originally designed for an artistic purpose, but has been repurposed in an artistic context. Framing The method by which information is included or excluded from a photograph, film, or video.
Frottage A technique that involves rubbing pencil, graphite, chalk, crayon, or another medium onto a sheet of paper that has been placed on top of a textured object or surface. Futurism An Italian movement in art and literature catalyzed by a manifesto published in a newspaper by Italian poet F. Gelatin silver print A black-and-white photographic print made by exposing paper, which has been made light-sensitive by a coating of gelatin silver halide emulsion, to artificial or natural light; a photographic process invented by Dr.
Genre A category of artistic practice having a particular form, content, or technique. Geometric Resembling or using the simple rectilinear or curvilinear lines used in geometry. Gesture A category of artistic practice having a particular form, content, or technique. Gouache A water-based matte paint, sometimes called opaque watercolor, composed of ground pigments and plant-based binders, such as gum Arabic or gum tragacanth. Graphic A visual representation or design on a surface. Grotesque Characterized by ludicrous, repulsive, or incongruous distortion, as of appearance or manner; ugly, outlandish, or bizarre, as in character or appearance.
Happening A performance, event, or situation considered as art, especially those initiated by the artists group Fluxus in the early s. Hardboard Stiff board made of compressed and treated wood pulp. Harlem Renaissance An African American literary, artistic, and intellectual flowering, centered in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem and spanning the s to the mids.
Hieroglyphics A pictographic communication system, closely associated with the ancient Egyptians, in which many of the symbols are stylized, recognizable pictures of the things and ideas represented. Horizon line A line in works of art that usually shows where land or water converges with the sky. Hue A particular gradation of color; a shade or tint. Iconic Having the character of an icon, i. Iconography Subject matter in visual art, often adhering to particular conventions of artistic representation, and imbued with symbolic meanings.
Idol An image used as an object of worship; one that is adored, often blindly or excessively. Illusion An unreal, deceptive, or misleading appearance or image. Image A representation of a person or thing in a work of art. Improvisation The act of improvising, that is, to make, compose, or perform on the spur of the moment and with little or no preparation.
In situ In its original position or place. Inclined plane A flat slanting surface, connecting a lower level to a higher level. Industrial design A field of design concerned with the aesthetics, form, functionality, and production of manufactured consumer objects.
Information Age The period beginning around characterized by a shift away from traditional industry and noted for the abundant publication, consumption, and manipulation of information, especially by computers and computer networks. Installation A form of art, developed in the late s, which involves the creation of an enveloping aesthetic or sensory experience in a particular environment, often inviting active engagement or immersion by the spectator. Institutional critique An art term describing the systematic inquiry into the practices and ethos surrounding art institutions such as art academies, galleries, and museums, often challenging assumed and historical norms of artistic theory and practice.
Intaglio A general term for metal-plate printmaking techniques, including etching, drypoint, engraving, aquatint, and mezzotint. Interaction Design The practice of designing digital environments, products, systems, and services for human interaction. Interior Design A discipline of design that focuses on the functional and aesthetic aspects of indoor spaces.
International Style A style of architecture that appeared from to and favored boxy structures, lack of decoration, and the use of materials such as steel, concrete, and glass. Intertitle Dialogue or narration conveyed in text that is shown between scenes of a silent film. Jazz Age The period in American history between World Wars I and II, particularly the s, characterized especially by the rising popularity of jazz and by the open pursuit of social pleasures. Juxtaposition An act of placing things close together or side by side for comparison or contrast. Kinetic sculpture Sculpture that depends on motion.
Lacquer Any of various clear or colored synthetic organic coatings that typically dry to form a film. Landscape The natural landforms of a region; also, an image that has natural scenery as its primary focus. Line A long mark or stroke. Lithography A printmaking technique that involves drawing with greasy crayons or a liquid called tusche, on a polished slab of limestone; aluminum plates, which are less cumbersome to handle, may also be used.
Magic lantern Apparatus used to project an image, usually onto a screen. Mandala A sacred Hindu and Buddhist art form, generally circular, that symbolizes the universe. Mannered Having or showing a certain manner; artificial, stylized, or affected. Mass Production The production of large amounts of standardized products through the use of machine-assembly production methods and equipment. Material An element or substance out of which something can be made or composed. Medium The materials used to create a work of art, and the categorization of art based on the materials used for example, painting [or more specifically, watercolor], drawing, sculpture.
Melodrama 1. Merz A term invented by the artist Kurt Schwitters to describe his works made from scavenged fragments and objects. Metaphysical Transcending physical matter or the laws of nature. Middle ground The part of the picture that is between the foreground and background. Minimalism A primarily American artistic movement of the s, characterized by simple geometric forms devoid of representational content. Mixed media 1. Model 1. Modern Modern can mean related to current times, but it can also indicate a relationship to a particular set of ideas that, at the time of their development, were new or even experimental.
Monochrome A work of art rendered in only one color. Montage An assembly of images that relate to one another in some way to create a single work or part of a work of art. Mood A state of mind or emotion, a pervading impression. Motif A distinctive and often recurring feature in a composition. Multiple A term referring to small-scale, three-dimensional works of art conceived and produced in relatively large editions, and often issued by the same individuals or organizations that publish prints.
Mural A large painting applied to a wall or ceiling, especially in a public space. Narrative A spoken, written, or visual account of an event or a series of connected events. Nastaliq A traditional form of calligraphy used mostly for Persian, Urdu, and Malay manuscripts. Naturalism Faithful adherence to nature; factual or realistic representation. Negative photographic A previously exposed and developed photographic film or plate showing an image that, in black-and-white photography, has a reversal of tones for example, white eyes appear black.
Obelisk A tall, four-sided monument that tapers into a pyramid-like form. Oceania A term referring to the islands of the southern, western, and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Oil Paint A paint in which pigment is suspended in oil, which dries on exposure to air. Old Master A distinguished European artist of the period from about to the early s, especially one of the great painters of this period, e.
Opaque Impenetrable to the passage of light.
Open source In computer software, open source refers to source code that is freely available and may be modified. Organic Having characteristics of a biological entity, or organism, or developing in the manner of a living thing. Ornamentation Accessories, decoration, adornment, or details that have been applied to an object or structure to beautify its appearance. Painter One who applies paint to canvas, wood, paper, or another support to produce a picture.
Painting A work of art made from paint applied to canvas, wood, paper, or another support noun. Palette 1. Palette knife A flexible, thin blade with a handle, typically used for mixing paint colors or applying them to a canvas. Panel A flat board, sometimes made of wood. Panning To pivot a movie camera along a horizontal plane in order to follow an object or create a panoramic effect. Panorama An unbroken view on an entire surrounding area. Pastel A soft and delicate shade of a color adjective ; a soft drawing stick composed of finely ground pigment mixed with a gum tragacanth binder noun.
Pattern A series of events, objects, or compositional elements that repeat in a predictable manner. Performance art A term that emerged in the s to describe a diverse range of live presentations by artists, including actions, movements, gestures, and choreography. Perspective Technique used to depict volumes and spatial relationships on a flat surface, as in a painted scene that appears to extend into the distance. Photogram A photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light.
Photograph An image, especially a positive print, recorded by exposing a photosensitive surface to light, especially in a camera. Photographer One who uses a camera or other means to produce photographs. Photogravure A printmaking process in which a photographic negative is transferred onto a copper plate. Photojournalism A type of journalism that uses photographs to tell a news story.
Photomontage A collage work that includes cut or torn and pasted photographs or photographic reproductions. Photostat A machine that makes quick duplicate positive or negative copies directly on the surface of prepared paper. Pictograph An image or symbol representing a word or a phrase.
Pictorialism An international style of photography in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, characterized by the creation of artistic tableaus and photographs composed of multiple prints or manipulated negatives, in an effort to advocate for photography as an artistic medium on par with painting.
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Picture Plane The virtual, illusionary plane created by the artist, parallel to the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art; the physical surface of a two-dimensional work of art, e. Pigment A substance, usually finely powdered, that produces the color of any medium. Plan A scale drawing or diagram showing the structure or organization of an object or group of objects.
Plane A flat or level surface. Plastic A term applied to many natural and synthetic materials with different forms, properties, and appearances that are malleable and can be molded into different shapes or objects. Plastic Art A term broadly applied to all the visual arts to distinguish them from such non-visual arts as literature, poetry, or music. Plasticizer Any of a group of substances that are used in the manufacture of plastics or other materials to impart flexibility, softness, hardness, or other desired physical properties to the finished product.
Plate In printmaking, the flat surface onto which the design is etched, engraved, or otherwise applied. Pliable Capable of being shaped, bent, or stretched out. Plywood A material made of thin layers of wood that have been heated, glued, and pressed together by a machine.
Pointillism A painting technique developed by French artists Georges-Pierre Seurat and Paul Signac in which small, distinct points of unmixed color are applied in patterns to form an image. Polyethylene One of the most common forms of plastic known for being tough, light, and flexible. Pop art A movement comprising initially British, then American artists in the s and s. Popular culture Cultural activities, ideas, or products that reflect or target the tastes of the general population of any society. Portrait A representation of a particular individual, usually intended to capture their likeness or personality.
Pose The way a figure is positioned. Positive In photography, images capable of being produced in multiples that result from the transfer of a negative image to another surface, such as a photographic print on paper. Postmodernism In art, postmodernism refers to a reaction against modernism. Primary color One of three base colors blue, red, or yellow that can be combined to make a range of colors. Prime To prepare a surface for painting by covering it with primer, or an undercoat.
Print A work of art on paper that usually exists in multiple copies. Profile A side view, usually referring to that of a human head. Prop An object used to aid or enhance a story or performance. Propaganda Any systematic, widespread dissemination or promotion of particular ideas, doctrines, practices, etc. Proportion Refers to the harmonious relation of parts to each other or to the whole. Prototype An early sample built to test a concept or process.
PVC Polyvinyl chloride, abbreviated PVC, is a common type of plastic often used in clothing, upholstery, electrical cable insulation, and inflatable products. Rayograph A term invented by Man Ray to describe what is conventionally known as a photogram, or photographic print made by placing objects and other elements on photosensitive paper and exposing it to light. Readymade A term coined by Marcel Duchamp in to describe prefabricated, often mass-produced objects isolated from their intended use and elevated to the status of art by the artist choosing and designating them as such.
Relics Body parts or personal belongings of saints and other important figures that are preserved for purposes of commemoration or veneration. Renaissance A term meaning rebirth or revival; applied to a period characterized by the humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning, originating in Italy in the fourteenth century and later spreading throughout Europe and lasting through the sixteenth century.
Rendering A representation, executed in perspective, of a proposed structure. Replica A copy or reproduction. Representation The visual portrayal of someone or something. Rococo A style of art, particularly in architecture and decorative art, that originated in France in the early s and is marked by elaborate ornamentation, including, for example, a profusion of scrolls, foliage, and animal forms.
Satire A genre of visual art that uses humor, irony, ridicule, or caricature to expose or criticize someone or something. Scale The ratio between the size of an object and its model or representation, as in the scale of a map to the actual geography it represents. Scene A setting for or a part of a story or narrative. School of Paris A loosely defined affiliation of international artists living and working in Paris from until about , who applied a diversity of new styles and techniques to such traditional subjects as portraiture, figure studies, landscapes, cityscapes, and still lifes.
Screenprint A stencil-based printmaking technique in which the first step is to stretch and attach a woven fabric originally made of silk, but now more commonly of synthetic material tightly over a wooden frame to create a screen. Sculptor One who produces a three-dimensional work of art using any of a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials.
Sculpture A three-dimensional work of art made by a variety of means, including carving wood, chiseling stone, casting or welding metal, molding clay or wax, or assembling materials.
Self-portrait A representation of oneself made by oneself. Set-dresser The person responsible for arranging the furnishings, drapery, lighting fixtures, artwork, and many other objects that together constitute the setting for scenes in television and film. Setting The context or environment in which a situation occurs. Pick a location. Stand in one spot and make 24 unique photographs while standing in the same place.
You cannot move your feet. The first time I did this, I hit a virtual brick wall after about 12 shots , and that was eye - opening in many ways. It really pushes you to be creative with your gear and surroundings. The smaller the subject, the more challenging this can be.
Can you go to the other side of the subject? Do the same. Shoot all four sides in all four corners if possible. See what you come up with! Go somewhere you have wanted to go to take photos but have been procrastinating about visiting. When you are out of film, just walk around or sit and enjoy the place. Depending on the size of the object, you may need a macro lens or telephoto.
Similar to Exercise 2, but only allowing the abstract, this exercise should force you to see deeper into an image. Think about the famous traveling gnome.
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Notice how it dictates framing and composition. Be creative with your placement of your portable subject. Compose, frame, and start the self-timer. Then, put yourself into the photo in a meaningful and thoughtful way.
Drop many pieces of scrap paper into a mixing bowl. Each piece should have a single word or phrase. Draw a piece of paper, grab your camera, and start shooting. Are you a studio portrait photographer? Try street photography for a day or weekend. Architectural photographer? Shoot sports at a local park. Go to a street corner, park, or other location and make photographs showing the following:. Go for a walk somewhere you have always wanted to photograph. As you walk, stop and take a unique image after a predetermined number of steps. Your favorite number? Every city block? The world changes a lot in just a few feet.
Stop to capture this. Two different fire hydrants do not two unique photographs make. Put your camera somewhere safe. Walk somewhere without a camera and look for photographs. When you reach your destination, walk back over the same route while still looking for photos. Finally, with camera in hand, retrace your steps for the third time and capture those photographs.
If in the field, leave your camera in your camera bag. Do not pull it out until you get back to the start. No cheating. Be disciplined. Look hard. Be observant. Walk slowly. Your degree perspective will reveal as much or more. Take bits and pieces from what is above or come up with anything that gets you to take creative images and break through walls. Share them with us and other photographic artists in the comments section!
You can find a lot more tips online or in books. Some of these take the shape of a photo assignment that takes you out of your comfort zone or introduces you to something different than what you usually do. Others are more creatively based. Beware of the creative exercises that focus on the technical workings of the camera—the goal should be to expand the creative mind. Having said that, improving technical proficiency is always a good thing, but just keep your focus on the creative and less on the nuts and bolts of a particular image.
The images are important, but they are not critical. If you come away with junk, but engage your mind and eye, then the mission is accomplished! Lastly, not only should a creative exercise be challenging and self-inspiring, it should be fun and never, ever feel like a chore. For an audio-visual look at these exercises, check out this video. I shot 62 rolls of film that year. That year, I had a project to photograph the sunrise over Columbia, SC from the Lake Murray Dam on the equinoxes and solstices and also the Full Moon moon rise and moon set.
Six rolls of film was my budget for an airshow. I loaded a new roll prior to the start of the Air Force Thunderbirds and ran out of 36 frames. I reloaded during their performance and was ready when they came back around. I've started doing the "roll of film" with a single ISO and film simulation mode. Thanks for this! I'd love to see one for video - found this page because I'm stuck in a creativity rut!!
Lucky that i found your article. I enjoyed reading it and i to tell this tips to co photographers. Thank you for sharing! My daughter is going to take a digital photo class at her middle school 7th grade. These are some great ideas we can do together while learning concepts of composition and seeing photographically. Lucky enough to stumble across this article. Thanks: they seem really fun ideas to start with!!
Thank you for these ideas! I am setting up an event with some photography friends to try some of these out. With the advent of the digital age and the potential afforded by post-processing, a whole generation of photographic artists has access to greater creative possibilities than ever before. Spearheading this new breed of creative photographer is author Natalie Dybisz, better known in the photographic community as Miss Aniela. Devoted to exploring portraiture at its most creative portraits with context, story, and constructed elements Creative Portrait Photography takes the reader on a behind-the-scenes journey through the creation of Natalie Dybisz's innovative digital portraits, from first concept to post-processing.