Chapter 8 Six Sigma and Lean. Chapter 12 General Engineering Calculations. Mathematical Patterns Series and Formulae. Measurement Units Notation and Constants. Conversion Factors. Interest Factors and Tables. Greek Symbols and Roman Numerials. Chapter 9 Risk Computations. Chapter 10 Computations for Project Analysis. Chapter 11 Product Shape and Geometrical Calculations. Back cover. And deterioration not only causes quantity loss but also worsens their quality.
Hence, due to different quality, selling price of deteriorating items may be different to stimulate the market demand. The paper considers an inventory model for non-instantaneous deteriorating item with price dependent demand and maximum lifetime. And two distinct cases as well as the corresponding theorems are formulated. Finally, several theoretical results and managerial insights are obtained via numerical examples.
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The paper develops an Economic Order Quantity EOQ model with current inventory-dependent and linearly increasing time-varying demand under trade credit financing, which is suitable for the growth stage of a product life cycle. The cost function of the model is minimized. An efficient solution procedure is shown for determine the optimal ordering interval of the model.
Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the optimization procedure and the sensitivity analysis is also examined for changes in the partial parameters. Furthermore, it deduces some previous published results as the special cases of the proposed models. The structure of large-scale grid-connected photovoltaic system and the control strategy of photovoltaic inverter have been researched.
This paper develops the mathematical model of photovoltaic cell array based on physical mechanism. The mathematical model of the photovoltaic inverter and MPPT controller has been established based on incremental conductance method and the inverter controller modeling has been made based on voltage-oriented space vector control scheme. By analyzing the operation of photovoltaic systems with different irradiance and temperature, the simulation results verify the correctness of the simulation model as well as the availability of engineering simulation analysis.
This paper researches on the pollution in a river and its removal by aeration, which is a very common technology in the treatment of waste water. In this paper, a system of pollutant concentration and dissolved oxygen concentration as the form of reaction-diffusion-advection equations is investigated, where the diffusion in the river is assumed to be in one dimension for simplicity. The finite difference scheme of the problem is given and its stability is analyzed. Moreover, the graphs of the numerical solution are shown and analyzed to provide decision support for practical problems in river pollution.
Crisis management in hazardous chemicals accident of disaster conditions is a complex problem involving multiple factors; one of the important links is information management on the crisis to implement efficient crisis information management, scientific operation mechanism must be established.
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This paper firstly analyzes the cause of the accident, the features of secondary disasters and emergency load, pointing out the important role of accident crisis information in crisis management. Then, this article puts forward the crisis information management system for the accident crisis on the basis of expounding the factors of crisis information management, by means of the three crisis information management mechanism embedded process, information fusion and learn to share to realize the efficiency of the system. In terms of total carbon reduction responsibility, the results show that the sector of transport, storage and post and telecommunications industry ranked first, followed by sectors of other services, chemical industry and farming, forestry, animal husbandry, side-line production and fishery.
Finally, advanced suggestions by analyses resulted from calculation mentioned above have been proposed to decrease carbon reduction responsibility. Plan recognition has wide applications in the real world. In this paper, we present a novel probabilistic plan recognition method based on an evidence reasoning approach. We analyze the theories of intentional action, and put forward our plan recognition method on the basis of the agent model and the environment.
By extracting the characteristics of the agent actions from the history data, we can make a brief model of the agent. During the online plan recognition process, we first initialize the probability for each goal according to the environment model. Then we use the agent model, treat the observed action as evidence and use a variant of Dempster-Shafer theory, weight assignment with a forgetting factor, to combine the newly observed action with the former estimation. We illustrate our approach with an example, then make further discussions and conclusions.
In the paper, the engine remanufacturing recovery model with public service advertising measure is established and the influence coefficient of advertisement propaganda is considered. Demand function of remanufactured engine has been delivered by establishing utility function of customer based on Consumption Behavioral Science. The paper discusses the influence coefficient of advertisement propaganda which effects the expectation of customers for the quality of remanufactured engine.
And using Stackelberg game method, the paper discusses the optimal price strategy of remanufactured product. The research indicates that: the sales volume of remanufactured product is increasing with the influence coefficient increasing, then the recovery number is increasing; the recovery number is indirectly increased by the increasing of the quality of remanufactured product. The electromagnetic induction method generally is used to measure the alternating magnetic field. A method of measuring the alternating electric field by induction coil based on the principle of electromagnetic induction is put forward.
The output voltage of induction coil in measurement circuit is analyzed, and then the time domain signal is converted to frequency domain phase. Finally, the simulation analysis of equivalent input resistance of measurement circuit and the influence of electric field frequency on output voltage of induction coil are given. The experimental results show that this method of measuring alternating electric field using induction coil is feasible. We examine a supply chain with one small supplier with capital constraint and one retailer with sufficient capital and bargaining power.
The supplier does not possess enough credit to get bank loan independently. The retailer may help the early production by providing reverse factoring or direct prepayment. When given the choice between the two credit types, the unique equilibrium is reverse factoring when the retailer can reach a high credit term, but is prepayment otherwise. Our analysis further suggests that the equilibrium region of prepayment financing shrinks as the retailer can default on certain proportion of the wholesale contract. Manual assembly work is often associated with ergonomically poor conditions that result in work-related musculoskeletal disorders MSDs , which result in low productivity and quality problems.
Aiming at finding out the impact of bad body postures, postural analysis tool using Rapid upper limb assessment RULA selected for assessment that indicates that the workers are working above the secure limit. Simulation test showed the improved design could avoid inadequate working postures during assembly task performing and effectively improve assembly quality.
This study provides a reference for the industrial manipulator assembly task in small-scale robotics industry, which has great significance for the increasingly competitive domestic robotics industry. In this passage, we use the — statistics of 11 Western Provinces and Cities to build a panel model. Those statistics include carbon energy discharge volume, GDP per capita, population intensity, primary energy consumption structure and urbanization level and from this we get a conclusion that the carbon discharge volume, population intensity and urbanization all have a positive relationship with CO.
Carbon discharge volume and GDP show a significant N type relationship which proves the environment Kuznets hypothesis is valid. It also reflects that in the future economic development, we should increase the energy consumption structure adjustment, highly improve the clean energy such as solar energy, nuclear energy and wind energy to lower the percentage of coal in primary energy consumption structure, and rapidly study the energy-saving and low-carbon technology to finally realize the sustainable development of energy, economy and environment.
This paper determines the attribute weight vector by using the maximum deviation method based on multi-attribute decision theory, analyzes the index of cabin information priority and proposes a method of grading cabin information for armored vehicle based on TOPSIS in detail. By the example analysis, it verifies the rationality of the method and provides a reference for the man-machine interface design of new armored vehicle to compare the results of grading cabin information of two different groups of crew.
Ethnic garment accessories culture resource is an important component part of the Chinese culture. The study focused on the signal processing and analysis of sternocleidomastoids SCM. The results showed that there was a certain relationship between the sEMG signals and neck height.
Entropy and Lempel-Ziv complexity value shows the similar trend in the nonlinear analysis. This study verifies the validity of neck muscle fatigue judging based on the sEMG signal feature analysis method, also provides a reasonable range of height of neck when people are in supine position. This paper illustrates the benefits of a nonlinear model-based predictive control approach which is implemented to a sugar precipitation process for Chinese medicine mixed solution.
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In this purpose, a model dedicated to the stage crystallization is designed, without consideration of crystal size distribution. A neural network model is employed as an internal model to predict process outputs. An optimization problem is solved to compute future control actions, taking into consideration real-time control objectives. The performance of the proposed control strategy, which is implemented to sucrose and glucose precipitation constitutes a real novelty and is tested via simulation in cases of set point tracking.
The results reveal a significant improvement in terms of precipitation efficiency. Based on the kinematics analysis of tangential ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding TUAG , the formula of cutting depth for single abrasive grit was established. Combined with the separation critical condition, the dynamic cutting force formula in the grinding zone was derived on this basis and was simulated by MATLAB. The simulation results indicated that the cutting force formula was in good agreement with the experiment results. Shock absorbers of electronic devices can reduce vibration and protect devices.
Through a method combining theoretical analysis, simulation and test, failure mechanisms of dry friction damping shock absorber were analyzed, including brittle fracture of spring, fatigue fracture of spring and wear of damping disk. By building the 3D solid model and performing finite element analysis which consists of statics analysis, modal analysis and random vibration analysis, stresses of corresponding positions are obtained.
Finally, we know the main failure mechanism is fatigue fracture of the spring, and obtain the life estimation of shock absorber. The result provides basis for later reliability tests and design improvement. On the basis of the analysis and research on energy consumption required by vibration isolation of the related suspensions and the potential of energy recovery of the energy regenerative suspension, a new hydraulic energy regenerative suspension HERS for short is devised by using the dynamic pressure feedback method, which makes the dynamic damping raised.
The simulation results show that: the HERS has a better vibration-reduction effect than the passive suspension.
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Moreover, the former suspension can regenerate a certain amount of energy. But some basic indices such as the dynamic travel of the suspension and the dynamic displacement of the tire will reduce to some extent. The companies have to rely on scale to sustain development. Due to considering the text semantic and word frequency information, the new method can improve text clustering precision.
Our experiments on TanCorpTxt and FuDanCorp datasets demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce modeling time efficiently, and improves text clustering accuracy effectively. Many countries regard IoT as a national strategic level technology. In the era of IoT, how to develop biometric technology evolution is a matter of concern. In this article, we present a survey of technologies, applications and challenges for biometrics technology in IoT environment. The topics we discussed include security problem, algorithm evaluation, big data, mobile cloud computing, new biometrics and sensor interoperability.
With the rapid development of the information economy, the project team becomes more and more important. The life cycle of a project team can be divided into four periods as founding, coalescing, achieving and dismissing. Combined with the team atmosphere and social relationships, the paper analyzes features of the four periods and promotes appropriate knowledge management strategy. Considering the gradual changes of the magnetic coupling force in the integrated toroidal drive, a trapezoid expression of the magnetic coupling stiffness is given. The corresponding dynamic model of the parameter vibration and the differential equation are founded.
By the method of the state transition matrix, the stability diagrams of the toroidal drive system along with the angular velocity are worked out. The results show that the unstable regions will obviously increase when the extended tooth contact is taken into account. On the basis of the analysis of the domestic and foreign sleeping berth, with man-machine engineering simulation software JACK as a tool, this paper builds the virtual passenger model and the coherent dynamic behavior of up and down, from sitting to lying were built.
On this basis, it tests the reach-ability of the upper limb, the comfort and safety of the dynamic behavior of passengers, carries on the ergonomics evaluation, finds the defects of the scale and layout of the sleeper at present, puts forward the corresponding improvement suggestions and optimization design scheme, and provides a reference for improving the design of the train sleeper.
Reasonable hub location is of great importance to improve efficiency and financial performance of transportation.
In this paper, multiple allocation hub location problem considering flow-dependent set-up cost is studied. Unlike the extant literature, set-up cost is assumed to be proportional to the total amount of flows through the hub. An integer linear programming model is developed to minimize transportation costs and set-up costs.
Computational tests with the CAB data set are also presented. Meanwhile, the impact of different discount factors on optimal locations is discussed, and the handling strategy when different demands occur is also analyzed. Moreover, the reason why hubs that serve more than one region should be replaced by potential hubs when demands change is analyzed, and useful suggestions are provided for decision makers to design hub network.
Estimate programs used in the ship repair industry currently lack repair industry specific needs for a smooth and fast way to give quotes. This model using the WBS method breaks single-ship repair projects into work packages. Meanwhile, the cost breakdown structure analyzes the composition of single-ship repair projects. The research provides a modular quotation for ship- repair enterprisess.
The results show whether manufacturers return E-wastes is closely related to the subsidy and penalty system of the government. Government must adjust subsidy and penalty system reasonably to make more manufacturers take an active part in recovery and treatment of E-wastes. The temporary price discount is a useful way for the supplier to encourage the retailer to order more and do some promotion, which is widely used in practice and studied in academia.
The existing literatures discuss this problem in a supply chain composed with one supplier and one retailer. This paper formulates a model for two competing retailers when their supplier offers a temporary price discount and a given promotion time in a market with uncertain demand. It is shown that retailers can earn more profit with a proper policy when utilizing the discount. This article from the perspective of emergency supplies distribution path selection, combined with the whole fairness and reliability of material distribution, complementary with emergency logistics timeliness and fair principles as constraint conditions, establish the distribution path selection model based on travelling salesman problem.
Heuristic rules method is applied to solve and analyze the established mathematical model. Considered the balance of distribution efficiency and meet the demand, provides a new thought for emergency supplies distribution path selection. Early warning satellite system is on the front edge of ballistic missile defense system, and plays an important role in leading other early warning systems and interceptor systems.
Based on trajectory characteristic and polynomial fitting method, ballistic missile launch point parameters estimation model and burnout point parameters estimation model are built, and a classical case of American early warning satellite system is simulated and analyzed, and the validity of the models is shown by the result. It establishes a dynamic mechanism model of Chinese dairy industrial clusters, which includes two driving forces, namely the attraction of raw milk resources and the impetus of local governments, and two kinds of function principles, which are the cost-efficiency principle and synergic-competition principle.
Finally based on the model, the dynamic mechanism evolution of Chinese dairy industrial clusters is studied from three developing stages, including starting stage, resource curse stage and the upgrading stages. A study of experimental measurement and numerical simulation was carried out with respect to 45 steel shaft work piece in the high-frequency induction heating cladding process.
Firstly, the model domain boundaries were divided in according to material characteristics. Secondly, the electromagnetic model and the thermal model were built with temperature-dependent material properties and coupled electromagnetic-thermal problem were solved by mean of magneto-quasi-static iteration between electromagnetic and thermal model. Thirdly, the three-dimensional geometry accurate model with regard to high-frequency induction heating cladding process was employed. Lastly, the experimental results of temperature distributions are in agreement with the results calculated using numerical simulation FEM and the maximal relative error was limited in a reasonable range.
The paper proposes a kind of pattern called Customer Requirement Elicitation Pattern to avoid the problems, such as semantic vagueness, quantitative analysis insufficiency, unclear customer positioning etc. The paper at last gives a quality design example based on Customer Requirement Elicitation Pattern of QFD from an anonymous car manufacturing company, which proves to successfully acquire the precisely quality design attributes under the condition of a man who brake in random situation. For improving the accuracy of data acquisition and universality of the integrated platform management system, a method to acquire the precise data based on the system is proposed.
By taking advantage of the signal generated either by GPS or Beidou, the accuracy of the master clock can be ensured; afterwards the slave clock can be modified by synchronizing with the master with the precise time protocol, each node outputting the pulse-per-second signal with high precision. Simulation and test results shows that this method can provide signal with the offset less than ns, not only the problem of measurement accuracy is resolved, and the universality make it possible that parts become connected more closed and the integrated platform management system can make more accuracy control.
The jib system is an important part of the MQ crane. It is difficult to carry out a detailed analysis for the jib system using only the knowledge of theoretical mechanics and mechanics of materials. The deformation of the jib system, as well as the stress distribution of the beam and the rod is obtained with FEA method, and some valuable conclusions to improve the design of the jib system and reduce gravity are also brought out based on the results of the analysis in this paper.
In this paper, an intensive automatic warehousing system based on two-way shuttle plate has been discussed. Two-way shuttle plate has the function of traveling along a vertical and crossing path on the plane, which can be transferred between different storage channels by oneself, to improve the storage efficiency of system. And the scheduling method of traveling for two-way shuttle plate has been introduced.
This paper uses some type engine as the research object. Piston is a major activity within the engine. Piston in the cylinder reciprocating friction and wear is a major cause of engine fatigue failure. Cybister bengalensis aube with appearance of concaves could do anti-drag sports in different medium. In this thesis, the concaves were processed in the engine cylinder piston skirt.
Based on the stress distribution of standard piston, this thesis has made nine test plans with the orthogonal experiment method. The boundary conditions of load are theoretically calculated, that are applied to finite-element analysis. Then obtained three indexes are maximum distortion, maximum stress and maximum load of piston skirt. Range analysis is used in test index optimization design with the three indexes. Finally primary and secondary factors are gotten, in turn bionic hole type A ; hole diameter D ; hole pattern B ; hole distribution type C.
Optimal level is A1B3C3D1. Human resource outsourcing of the enterprise is getting more and more popular. When the supply chain technique has been applied into human resource outsourcing, the human resource supply chain occurs. This paper develops three models of human resource supply chain of T Co. Ltd, respectively for the top managers, the production personnel and general clerical staff, and the support staff. Every model has its own characteristics and drives.
The sustainable success of such supply chains depends on more practices of T Co. Subdivision surface modeling plays an important role in the field of surface modeling. As the gradual progress of subdivision is discrete, both a smooth design model and a discrete machining model can be represented by subdivision surface. Particularly, due to the unique multiresolution property, different multiresolution models can be obtained by utilizing subdivision wavelets analysis filters.
Therefore, different multiresolution models can be applied to generate tool paths at different NC machining stages. Firstly, the paper is mainly focused on the key technologies of Loop subdivision surface multiresolution analysis. The biorthogonal Loop subdivision wavelets decomposition and reconstruction based on the reverse subdivision are realized and verified experimentally. Secondly, special attention is paid to the tool path generation of rough machining based on reverse Loop subdivision surface. By making use of Loop reverse subdivision wavelets and adjustment algorithms of local control points, the smooth rough machining model with minimum energy is generated.
Finally, machining simulation tests are implemented for the verification. The three phases VSR is the ideal substitution for the SCR inverter in the chopped-wave cascade speed control driver system, which could create the capacitive reactive power to compensate the inductive reactive power and feedback the current close to sine wave to power grid. In this paper, a thought is put forward about replacing the traditional SCR inverter with three-phases VSR for the speed control driver. Based on the operating modes of the speed driver, the special working conditions of the three-phases VSR is further analyzed.
The Navier velocity-slip boundary conditions are adopted to fluid continuous flow equation. Modified Reynolds equation in micro-scale is obtained. Based on the conservation of oil film flow and the assumption of linearization distribution of oil film pressure, the load capacity is gained in the consideration of slip. Through comparison and analysis, the performance of hydrostatic bearing under the micro-scale is different from tradition.
With the increase of slip length, load capacity is reduced. The oil film thickness of the maximum load capacity decreases. Slip phenomenon is more serious, the effect is more obvious. So the design of bearing must consider the influence of the micro-scale.
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Under the current circumstances, CODAG propulsion system is more in line with the naval requirement of military vessel. The quality management procedure is proposed with a real case of experimental project management in this paper. The procedure includes the preparation phase, the execution phase and the conclusion phase. In each phase, the objectives which are focused on by the quality control are described. And the experimental project objectives and products are analyzed. The basic method is demonstrated with the principle of research goal oriented to improve the quality management in experimental project.
It makes the quality management closely around the test objectives to found the quality control and assurance measures. The procedure applying with the method helps to contribute the smooth implementation of the experimental project. It has been applied to the recent experimental research and its efficiency has been confirmed. Anti-radiation missile decoy can effectively protect the radar from being killed by anti-radiation missile. The paper analyses the operational effectiveness of using anti-radiation missile decoy, calculates the kill probability of anti-radiation missile to radar under different conditions.
The paper also studies the operational application of anti-radiation missile decoy, makes a quantitative analysis of radiation power, collocation distance, collocation number, and embattle form, as a reference for the further research. With the improvement of calculation accuracy, the application is required to handle the increasing volume of data. Compression can reduce the size of the IO load, speed the data transferring on disk and network.
In Hadoop, the benefits of using compression have not been completely exploited. We present a compression-using-policy to help Hadoop users to determine when, where and how to use compression. We also propose an efficient way to monitor Hadoop cluster with Ganglia, which helps balance the cost and benefits of the compression policy. This paper introduces a simulation research on autonomous navigation methods of navigation constellation based on X-ray pulsars and satellite-to-satellite link, and proposes a new method which integrated both.
Results showed that the new method effectively improves the position precision, and thus provided a new thought for navigation constellation autonomous navigation research. Flexible job shop scheduling problem FJSP is a well known NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem due to its very large search space and many constraints between machines and jobs.
To solve the flexible job shop scheduling problem with minimizing the completion time, a hybrid approach is proposed based on the DBR Drum-Buffer-Rope theory and the genetic algorithm. In the proposed method, the bottleneck identification mechanism is established to find the bottleneck machines. Then, scheduling strategy is designed based on the critical path of the machine during operation.
In order to keep good solution in every generation, we use external libraries elite excellent solution for de-reserved. Using the proposed algorithm for solving benchmark problems, the experimental results verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm. With more and more producer services participated in manufacturing activities, the trend of manufacturing servitization has affected value-chain reconfiguration from the traditional value chain to service-oriented value chain.
We analyze the motivation of manufacturing servitization from the perspective of value chain and, based on the analysis of value chain elements before and after manufacturing enterprise servitization, elaborate the value chain change caused by enterprise servitization, which lays a strong foundation for further optimization of enterprise value chain. Agri-food supply chain networks often face several different types of disruptions, the research of the agri-food supply chain network robustness is based on analyzing the definition and characteristic of agricultural supply chain. To better explore the robustness of agri-food supply chain network, a new measure of supply chain network robustness is proposed based on complex networks.
Under random disruption and target disruption, the different topologies of supply chain network robustness are analyzed. Simulation result shows that topology of agri-food supply chain network has great influence on its robustness which follows some statistical rules; the purposes of improving agri-food supply chain network robustness can be achieved by adjusting the distance sensitive parameters and changing the evolution mechanism in the network.
This research not only provides some references for scholars, but also helps to analyze the robustness in agri-food supply chain network management. Currently aircraft assembly tooling and aircraft are designed concurrently. Due to the change of aircraft design, change of the assembly tooling occurs often. This paper applies a change propagation algorithm to predict change propagation from aircraft parts to assembly tooling parts. With the algorithm, a computer-aided system is developed to assist the designers to predict change propagation in aircraft assembly tooling. In this paper, using the principle of system dynamics to analyze the automotive enterprises, the system which supply chain performance index based on structure and function was established for automotive enterprises.
Application of the basic flow rate into the tree modeling approach, the system dynamics model of automotive enterprises supply chain performance indicators was established, through the model and find out the influence of the relationship between performance variables, in order to carry on the system analysis to the supply chain performance, according to the results of the analysis suggestion to improve performance. This paper is a comprehensive analysis of paper packaging waste flows and key links, for example, reusable paper packaging container recycling, a study on how to build such a reverse logistics network, the use of bi-level programming model and a specific solution and example to achieve the minimum target of the cost of transport and node operating costs and strong versatility.
The main contents of this paper are the flows and key links of the paper packaging wastes. The conventional wind farm outgoing line protections have not taken the wind farm fault features into consideration, as a result, the protections may mal-operate because of integration of large-scale wind generation. This paper analyzes fault features of doubly-fed induction generator based wind farm which possesses Low Voltage Ride Through ability, discovering that the main frequency composition of short circuit current at the wind farm side is no longer power frequency because of the wind speed variation.