We examined the approximate flaring efficiency i. Numbering of peaks is as described in Figure 1. The left and right panels are for the Malay and Borneo peaks, respectively. Dashed lines indicate regression lines for individual peaks determined by reduced major-axis regression.
We used these observed CH 4 peaks to estimate the CH 4 emission rates based on a mass balance approach 25 , 26 , The start and end points of the integration interval for the individual CH 4 peaks, a and b in equation 1 , are determined manually by visual inspection, and the values of C 0 y are determined practically by linear interpolation between the CH 4 mole fractions at points a and b.
For every plume calculation, we adopted the molar density of air n of 1. We applied the mass balance approach to the appropriate 14 peaks that the ship transited straight across the CH 4 peak. Geographical relationships between the observed CH 4 peaks and the offshore platforms were well explained by the trajectory model. The calculated uncertainty ranges from lower to upper limits , also listed in Table 1 , suggest substantial uncertainty in this approach.
The value of 1. Figures in parentheses are the uncertainty ranges. The median value of all the CH 4 emission rates is The total regional annual emission of CH 4 from offshore platforms in the Southeast Asian region is estimated to be about 0. Despite the large uncertainty inherent in the mass balance approach, our estimate displays relatively good agreement with that by EDGAR. The distributions of point sources of CH 4 are an important uncertainty in the existing inventories. The emissions from other sources are minor.
Globally, there are a number of offshore fields for oil and gas production. To our knowledge, this work marks the first top-down constraint on CH 4 emissions from oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia. On the other hand, we also realize the considerable uncertainty in our estimates, which derive from a combination of features inherent in the mass balance approach and the lack of samples of CH 4 plumes from offshore platforms, due to the sporadic occurrence of gas flaring and fugitive emissions at oil and gas platforms.
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Hence, our top-down estimates of CH 4 emissions from offshore platforms located in the Southeast Asian region need to be tested and improved. For example, if fugitive plumes were undersampled in our observations, the estimated CH 4 emissions would be much greater, possibly even by one order of magnitude. To better assess the regional total emissions of CH 4 from offshore platforms and thereby improve the current emissions inventory, further top-down constraints by integrated ship, aircraft, and satellite observations are needed.
In particular, the detection of fugitive plumes would be useful to reduce uncertainties in estimating the emissions. The feedback gained from plume observations can help in the reduction of fugitive emissions in Southeast Asian countries and thus, contribute to the mitigation of global warming. Two northbound routes are used from Jakarta to Japan: one via Thailand and the Philippines the northbound Asia route and the other via Borneo the northbound Borneo route.
Only one southbound route is used from Japan to Indonesia. Green and blue lines show the southbound Japan—Indonesia and northbound Indonesia—Japan Asia routes respectively; a red line shows the northbound Borneo route Indonesia—Japan. Regular berthing ports are shown as solid black circles. A detailed description of the atmospheric observation system is provided elsewhere The sampled air was dried before analysis to minimize biases due to dilution and pressure-broadening effects of water vapor on the WS-CRDS measurements.
The design and performance of the unit was very similar to that used for the CO measurements To our experience, the air samples were rarely contaminated with the ship's exhaust, when the ship sails at approximately 20 knot because the ship's exhaust is located at stern side.
When the air samples were contaminated with the exhaust gas, we judged it by the CO 2 and O 3 measurements CO 2 increase and O 3 decrease , and then rejected the data before the analysis. For instrument calibration, we prepared a set of three natural or purified air-balanced standard gases with CO 2 and CH 4 ca. In this study, we used only the 1-min temporal mean CH 4 and CO 2 data from the continuous measurements because of the coarse resolution of the CO data, available only as 1-hour means from the gas filter correlation measurements, and because the O 3 data provide little information about CH 4 emission sources.
All authors participated in the discussion of results and H. We thank the Toyofuji Shipping Co. Kariya and T. Yamada of the Global Environmental Forum for their assistance with data collection. We also thank C.
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Morino and T. Nagashima NIES for valuable discussion. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Sep Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Since MARIN was founded we have made thousands of ships and operations around the world safer, faster, more efficient and greener. Aiming to bridge the gap between design and operation we are involved in the entire lifecycle of the ship, from the initial concept development to design, construction and subsequently to the final operation. This allows us to continuously assess and improve our research.
We have a complete range of model test facilities, software tools, simulators, numerical facilities and measurement techniques to test, simulate and monitor ships and operations including the human factor. We offer a complete range of dedicated model test facilities for applied research. Testing with models under realistic conditions remains invaluable as an accurate and objective way to quantify and demonstrate the behaviour and performance of a ship or structure. Complementing each other, each facility is used to solve specific design and research issues.
We use this basin x With a depth adjustable from 0 to 1. This includes factors like proximity of quays and bank suction.
This facility is also used for Concept Development and Design Support for operations and new ship and offshore designs in shallow water. This basin x 4 x 3. It is equipped with a wave generator that can reach a significant wave height of 0. We use this tank x To provide insight in the possible improvements of the performance of the ship the tank has features to measure various wave and flow patterns.
With a depth of Combined wind, waves and swell are generated using wave generations on both sides of the basin as well as a movable wind bed. A movable floor allows testing from shallow to deep water, while a 30 m deep pit is available for ultra-deep water testing. Verifying performance and safety requires accurate representation of a ship and its ride control elements in relevant wave conditions.
This basin x 40 x 5 m is designed to make arbitrary high-speed manoeuvres in realistic waves from arbitrary directions.
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The free-sailing or captive tests provide insight into the seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics. In this basin x 18 x 8 m we test models of both ships and offshore structures in most realistic operational conditions. The basin can be used for resistance and propulsion tests.
In the Cavitation Tunnel we test a range of propulsor designs. Large propellers can be tested at high Reynolds numbers to predict accurate cavitation behaviour. A tunnel loop is available for testing the performance and cavitation properties of water jet impellers. Observation with high-speed cameras enables detailed cavitation flow investigations.
The Multiphase Wave Lab is a unique test facility for investigations on the transport of cryogenic cargoes by sea, such as liquefied natural gas LNG and liquid hydrogen LH2. This engine room of the future integrates power and the hydro propulsion system and enables the representative coupling of the propulsion hydrodynamics with the power supply. ZEL is a unique test facility worldwide for the research and testing of future marine propulsion and power systems, applying realistic, dynamic operating profiles.
By means of simulating the port environment and the vessel, professionals such as captains, pilots, mooring masters and tug masters can demonstrate the feasibility of a port layout on safety and viability in a simulator. Full Mission Bridge Simulators are used to reduce risk and downtime in offshore operations by investigating and training manoeuvring and communication skills, or by optimising manoeuvring strategies, port layouts and vessel designs. All our simulators can be operated independently or in any combination and are based on in-house developed and validated tools and technology.
The bridges are equipped with realistic consoles and instrumentation. In addition, we have specialist knowledge to predict the ageing and failure behaviour of materials steel, concrete and composite under these conditions. Shipping must comply with ever stricter rules on emissions.
TNO has a broad portfolio of knowledge and technology to support the sector in this respect, including knowledge of:. An increasingly important part of sustainability at sea is the reduction of underwater noise. As TNO, we have specialist knowledge in this area in-house to advise both public authorities and market parties. On the one hand, we are working on standards for measuring and standardising underwater noise and, on the other hand, on developing measures for limiting noise emissions from ships and offshore operations.
The complexity of operations at sea is increasing. Safety is paramount. An important trend is to reduce the use of divers. For underwater operations, we are working on improved communication underwater wifi , autonomous underwater robots and measurement and analysis techniques to improve the quality of the management of underwater robots. Above the surface, we are working with a broad consortium to reduce the number of crew members on ships. In the first instance by developing remote control, but with the ultimate goal of realising autonomous vessels.
Part of our portfolio in the maritime sector focuses on the fisheries sector. One of the technologies we have developed is the so-called bistatic sonar. This sonar emits short sound pulses and sends back signals.
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This allows fishermen to recognise fish species by size and species and decide whether or not to cast their nets. This also prevents unwanted by-catches. Among TNO's many activities to develop cleaner ships, the reduction in sulphur emissions has drawn particular attention in recent years. By , not only new ships, but also all existing ships must conform The need for lean, efficient at-sea crews is more important than ever before.
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As qualified crew members become scarcer, shipping companies require viable solutions for safety and efficiency at sea. As offshore companies dig deeper, and offshore wind parks grow larger than ever before, TNO strives to achieve more effective explorations at sea. From the optimisation of wind and tidal energy to the This data can easily be removed from your temporary profile page at any time.
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