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RLS is more common in older people and tends to run in families. Overuse of caffeine or alcohol may make symptoms worse. Iron deficiency, diabetes, or kidney problems can contribute to RLS. Periodic limb movement disorder PLMS is sudden, repetitive leg jerking during sleep. The person you sleep with is often the one who notices it. Your legs may jerk many times during the night. You and your partner may both have trouble sleeping and feel tired in the morning. If these problems are causing disrupted sleep and daytime symptoms, treatment may be needed.

Lakeland Locations. Health Library. Rights and Privacy. Lakeland News. Southwest Michigan. About Lakeland. Pharmacologic options for bruxism that is refractory to dental appliances alone may include clonazepam, botulinum toxin, or clonidine, but available data are limited.

Rhythmic, stereotyped, nonepileptic, large-amplitude body movements may occur shortly before sleep onset and persist into sleep in some cases. The behaviors tend to repeat at a frequency between 0. Common manifestations include body rocking, head banging, and head rolling. If these behaviors are disruptive to sleep, result in daytime dysfunction, or are potentially injurious, they are characterized as sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder. Although these behaviors typically have been characterized as a method of self-soothing, children tend to be amnestic for the movements, and adults generally do not report a volitional component.

Head banging behaviors may be violent and frequent, especially in some children and adults with psychomotor maldevelopment, and, in such cases, recommendation for protective head gear worn at bedtime should be considered to prevent injury.

Sleep-wake transition hypnic myoclonus may be focal or axial, and while physiologic, occasionally becomes prominent enough for patients to seek clinical attention. Addressing and correcting aggravating influences such as excessive caffeine use, physical or emotional stress, or comorbid anxiety or mental health disorders is usually effective, but a brief course of clonazepam 0.

Propriospinal myoclonus is a rare sleep-wake transition movement disorder that also may occur during wakefulness. Diagnosis requires video-EEG polysomnography or waking movement disorder laboratory studies employing axial and thoracic EMG electrodes to demonstrate initiation of the myoclonic jerks segmentally over the axial muscles prior to the characteristic spread to other segments. Treatment is frequently difficult, with clonazepam or topiramate most often recommended.

Recent evidence suggests that propriospinal myoclonus may often be overdiagnosed or misdiagnosed, and that functional movement disorders may emulate these movements quite closely. The sleep-related movement disorders are common, with age- and region-specific variations in prevalence, and may contribute to impaired quality of life, disrupted sleep, and pain or discomfort. RLS is associated with a variety of neurologic and psychiatric disorders, and growing evidence supports a relationship between RLS and vascular disease.

While treatment options for RLS are plentiful and well supported by clinical trials, treatment options for the remaining sleep-related movement disorders are more limited and based on lower-level evidence. Colleague's E-mail is Invalid.

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Article Tools. Article as PDF. Article as EPUB. Print This Article. View Images in Gallery. View Images in Slideshow. Add to My Favorites. Export to Citation Manager. Alert Me When Cited. Request Permissions. Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Share on LinkedIn. Article Level Metrics. Abstract Purpose of Review: This article provides an update on six sleep-related movement disorders: restless legs syndrome RLS , periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, bruxism, rhythmic movement disorder, and propriospinal myoclonus, with an emphasis on RLS.

Common Mimics of Restless Legs Syndrome a.

What is PLMD?

Periodic limb movements of sleep in a year-old woman. Four consecutive second epochs are shown, with periodic leg movements occurring approximately every 20 seconds and culminating in an arousal from sleep arrow. Courtesy of Erik K. American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

International classification of sleep disorders.

Sleep-related movement disorders

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Periodic Limb Movement Disorder (PLMD) in Adults

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Overview of Pediatric Movement Disorders

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The molecular genetics of restless legs syndrome. Sleep Med Clin ;10 3 —, xii. Dopamine agonists for restless legs syndrome.

Periodic limb movement disorder: Symptoms and treatment

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