Some renewable technologies, such as wind and ocean thermal, use solar energy after it has been absorbed on the earth and converted to the other forms. The origin of the heat is linked with the internal structure of the planet and the physical processes occurring there. Heat is mined from geothermal reservoirs using wells and other means.
Reservoirs that are naturally adequately hot and permeable are called hydrothermal reservoirs, while reservoirs that are satisfactorily hot but are improved with hydraulic stimulation are called enhanced geothermal systems ESG. Once drawn to the surface, fluids of various temperatures can be used to generate electricity and other purposes that require the use of heat energy Edenhofer et al.
Wind energy harnesses kinetic energy from moving air. Onshore wind energy technologies are already being manufactured and deployed on large scale Edenhofer et al. Wind turbines convert the energy of wind into electricity. Surface waves are created when wind passes over water Ocean. The ocean stores enough energy to meet the total worldwide demand for power many times over in the form of waves, tide, currents and heat.
The year saw the beginning of the first generation of commercial Ocean energy devices, with the first units being installed in the UK-SeaGen and Portugal-Pelamis. Figure 1 shows the opportunities of renewable energy sources towards sustainable development. The notion of energy security is generally used, however there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. Given the interdependence of economic growth and energy consumption, access to a stable energy supply is of importance to the political world and a technical and monetary challenge for both developed and developing countries, because prolonged interferences would generate serious economic and basic functionality difficulties for most societies Edenhofer et al.
Renewable energy sources are evenly distributed around the globe as compared to fossils and in general less traded on the market. The introduction of renewable energy can also make contribution to increasing the reliability of energy services, to be specific in areas that often suffer from insufficient grid access. A diverse portfolio of energy sources together with good management and system design can help to enhance security Edenhofer et al.
by Eric Martinot
Generally, the energy sector has been perceived as a key to economic development with a strong correlation between economic growth and expansion of energy consumption. Globally, per capita incomes are positively correlated with per capita energy use and economic growth can be identified as the most essential factor behind increasing energy consumption in the last decades. It in turn creates employment; renewable energy study in , proved that employment from renewable energy technologies was about 2.
The sustainable development goal seven affordable and clean energy seeks to ensure that energy is clean, affordable, available and accessible to all and this can be achieved with renewable energy source since they are generally distributed across the globe. Access concerns need to be understood in a local context and in most countries there is an obvious difference between electrification in the urban and rural areas, this is especially true in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asian region Brew-Hammond, Distributed grids based on the renewable energy are generally more competitive in rural areas with significant distances to the national grid and the low levels of rural electrification offer substantial openings for renewable energy-based mini-grid systems to provide them with electricity access Edenhofer et al.
Renewable energy sources used in energy generation helps to reduce greenhouse gases which mitigates climate change, reduce environmental and health complications associated with pollutants from fossil fuel sources of energy. Nevertheless, there was variation in individual member countries, while there was a decrease in GHG emissions in 22 EEA countries, there was an increase in 11 EEA countries. Figure 4 shows United States carbon dioxide gas emissions from — Figure 2 shows an example of carbon dioxide emission levels being reduced from — in United States, a shift from mainly fossil fuel-based energy sources to renewable energy sources United States Environmental Protection Agency, Renewable energy sources could become the major energy supply option in low-carbon energy economies.
EEG – A new legal framework for the German energy transition | Clean Energy Wire
Disruptive alterations in all energy systems are necessary for tapping widely available renewable Energy sources. Organizing the energy transition from non-sustainable to renewable energy is often described as the major challenge of the first half of the twenty-first century Verbruggen et al.
Figure 5 shows the interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability. In addition, technological innovations affect the cost of renewable energy technologies which in turn leads to market failures and low patronization of the renewable energy technology. In the light of this, an effective renewable energy policy should take the interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability into consideration.
Interconnection of factors affecting renewable energy supplies and sustainability, adapted from Edenhofer et al. Reducing our carbon footprint through the changes in lifestyle and behaviour patterns can contribute a great deal to the mitigation of climate change. Research into innovations and technologies that can reduce land use and also reduce accidents from renewable energy sources and the risk of resource competition, for example in Bioenergy where food for consumption competing with energy production. Enhancing international cooperation and support for developing countries towards the expansion of infrastructure and upgrading technology for modern supply and sustainable energy services as a way of mitigating climate change and its impacts.
The return-to-renewables will help mitigate climate change is an excellent way but needs to be sustainable in order to ensure a sustainable future for generations to meet their energy needs. The aim of the paper was to ascertain if renewable energy sources were sustainable and how a shift from fossil fuel-based energy sources to renewable energy sources would help reduce climate change and its impact.
A qualitative research was employed by reviewing papers in the scope of the study. Even though, the complete lifecycle of renewable energy sources have no net emissions which will help limit future global greenhouse gas emissions. Nevertheless, the cost, price, political environment and market conditions have become barriers preventing developing, least developed and developed countries to fully utilize its potentials.
EEG 2.0 – A new legal framework for the German energy transition
In this way, a creation of global opportunity through international cooperation that supports least developed and developing countries towards the accessibility of renewable energy, energy efficiency, clean energy technology and research and energy infrastructure investment will reduce the cost of renewable energy, eliminate barriers to energy efficiency high discount rate and promote new potentials towards climate change mitigation.
The study brought to light the opportunities associated with renewable energy sources; energy security, energy access, social and economic development and climate change mitigation and reduction of environmental and health impacts. There are challenges that tend to hinder the sustainability of renewable energy sources and its ability to mitigate climate change.
These challenges are: market failures, lack of information, access to raw materials for future renewable resource deployment, and most importantly our humans way of utilizing energy in an inefficient way. Changes in our use of energy in a more efficient way as individuals, countries and the world as a whole. Efforts that aim at increasing the share of renewable energy and clean fossil fuel technologies into global energy portfolio will help reduce climate change and its impacts.
Energy efficiency programmes should be introduced globally, which give tax exemptions to firms who prove to provide energy efficiency initiatives energy-efficient homes , product design energy-efficient equipment and services industrial combined heat and power.
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Introducing the concept of usability, adaptability and accessibility into energy-dependent product design is a way of promoting energy efficient behaviours. Increase research in these areas, so that the fear of some renewables posing risks in the future is limited. Improve education, awareness-raising and human institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning. Developed countries should incorporate decarbonization policies and strategies into the industry, energy, agricultural, forest, health, transport, water resource, building and other sectors that have potential of increasing greenhouse gas emissions.
Efforts in developing countries aimed at improving institutional training, strengthening institutions and improving capacity of research on climate change will increase awareness, promote adaptation and sustainable development. Least developed countries should develop and test tools and methods with a global support that direct policy and decision-making for climate change mitigation, adaptation and early warnings. Supporting a global dialogue through international cooperation and partnership with developed, developing and least developed countries will promote the development, dissemination and transfer of environmentally friendly technologies, innovation and technology, access to science, and among others which will increase the mutual agreement towards combating climate change and its impacts.
If these suggestions are implemented, the sustainability of renewable energy resources would be addressed as well as the seventh and thirteenth goal of sustainable development which seeks to ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable, modern energy for all and combat climate change and its impact. You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
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Cite this article as:. Article Figures and tables References. Abstract Abstract The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. Subjects Bio Energy Clean Tech Clean Technologies Environmental Renewable Energy Keywords Keywords renewable energy sources climate change mitigation sustainability issues clean energy carbon footprint environmental sustainability engineering.
Public Interest Statement Energy is a requirement in our everyday life as a way of improving human development leading to economic growth and productivity. Introduction The world is fast becoming a global village due to the increasing daily requirement of energy by all population across the world while the earth in its form cannot change. Renewable energy sources and sustainability Renewable energy sources replenish themselves naturally without being depleted in the earth; they include bioenergy, hydropower, geothermal energy, solar energy, wind energy and ocean tide and wave energy.
Table 1. One sticking point, legally-enshrined price guarantees for green power, have created a huge wave of renewable energy projects since the law was introduced in , offering safe and sometimes lucrative returns for investors. When the seven-month-old ruling coalition of conservative Christian Democrats and centre-left Social Democrats decided to gradually replace these with an auction-based system by , the reform did not garner much favour with green power producers. The renewable-energy industry , small electricity producers and environmentalists fear it will stifle investment and the growth of renewables.
The government, large industrial companies and utilities claim this new competitive element will help lower electricity prices. The planned change also means green energy producers will have more exposure to competition and to a much more detailed planning process.
Previously, anyone with a permit to build a green power facility could do so — without having to bid against competitors. Utilities were obliged to connect the facility to the grid so that its access to the market was guaranteed. The coalition is also using financial incentives — and disincentives - to exert greater control over the number of new green power facilities being built, after the renewable energy market saw large volumes of capacity additions in the past. While the capacity of green power facilities doubled between and , it has expanded more than sixfold since the introduction of the current version of the renewable energy law in The law has been modified more than four times since then to adjust subsidies to the falling costs of new green power facilities, mostly windmills or solar panels.
The new law caps the amount of renewable energy that qualifies for state-guaranteed income — so-called capacity limits, which sharply reduce guaranteed returns once a targeted number of installations have been built. Germany still emits too much carbon. But despite an abundance of green power, the country as it is at risk of missing its climate targets unless it intensifies efforts to lower carbon dioxide emissions. Germany was an early advocate of climate targets, first setting emissions hurdles in , well before renewable energy goals were established in The nuclear phase-out also has a long history: After more than three decades of fierce public opposition to nuclear power, a ruling coalition of Social Democrats and Greens decided in to phase out nuclear plants by around A decade later, the new government of Liberal Democrats and Conservatives partially rolled that back, extending the lifespan of nuclear plants.
But this short-lived move ended in one of the most sweeping turnarounds ever in German politics. It set it a deadline for the last nuclear power plant to go offline in Other parts of the Energiewende, such as improvements in energy efficiency and battery-powered cars have yet to be tackled with the same determination as electricity production. So far, the focus remains on renewables.
Consumers support green power with 24 billion euros in , but public happy to pay. The money — mostly from commercial electricity consumers followed by households — flows to green energy producers, many of which are households themselves , demonstrating how green power is wresting market share from large utilities. Some industries pay only a fraction of the so-called EEG -surcharge, a top-up on electricity prices to fund the feed-in tariffs for renewables.
In addition, the government said it wants to better integrate renewables into the existing power market. This means that a larger number of green power producers will have to sell their power directly on the power market and cannot rely on just handing it over to their local grid operator. Despite much media coverage, most consumers are little fazed by their electricity bill, as the share of their total power bill — including all levies — of their overall spending has remained stable at around 2 percent since A majority, however, opposes the surcharge exemption for large, power-consuming industrial companies such as BASF and ThyssenKrupp.
Nonetheless the German government reached an agreement with the Commission in September , which left the overall subsidy package stable at 5 billion euros. That would represent more than 2 percent of the German workforce. The renewable energy industry has also grown into a big business, investing some 16 billion euros in new facilities in thanks to the electricity surcharge. The industry, which includes wind farm makers and companies that maintain them, employs , people 0. Database of U. A comprehensive source of information on incentives and policies that support renewables and energy efficiency in the United States.
Provides good overviews, summary maps and tables. Publishes a number of reports on renewable energy trends in the US, with policy tracking and analysis. A large number of high-quality publications analyzing U. Offers a number of publications on renewable energy policies in the United States. Reports the present status and promotion measures for the introduction of renewable energy in Japan. A repository of all central and state government policies, incentives, and programs related to renewable energy and energy efficiency in India.
Provides renewable energy information such as policies and targets which can be searched by technology, sector, and country. Offers a comprehensive policy and regulatory overview covering countries. Many good studies on energy policy experience, design, and future prospects. Can be searched by document type, unit, or cluster. Sorted by year. EU countries have agreed on a new Framework for climate and energy, including EU-wide targets and policy objectives for the period between and Related documents can be downloaded from this page.
Mai, W. Cole, E. Lantz, C. Marcy, and B. Sigrin Golden, CO: U. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, , 42 pp. Explores two specific questions: How might renewable energy deployment in the contiguous United States change with recent federal tax credit extensions?
And how might this change in RE deployment impact carbon dioxide emissions in the power sector? A resource guide focusing on the tax credits for wind and solar energy.
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Huxham, S. Muench, and B.
Renewable Energy Support Policies in Europe
Drivers and policy options , W. Rickerson, J. Koo, J. Crowe; Meister Consultants Group, and T. Confirms that growth of commercial prosumers has been? Hart, L. Bertuccioli, and X. Identifies and discusses in detail policy-relevant issues relating to renewables and storage that could affect the transition to a largely renewable energy system. Presents a novel, overarching framework to help policymakers understand the evolution of RE policy, one that attempts to outline a number of potential pathways forward to adapt to the rise of renewables.
Veilleux, W. Rickerson, et al. Analyzes current patterns of use of renewable energy sources for heating and cooling in the commercial sector and provides evidence-based policy recommendations. Focuses on existing buildings. Lehr, B.