In their view, social security is not limited to the provision of cash transfers, but also aims at security of work, health, and social participation; and new social risks single parenthood, the reconciliation of work and family life should be included in the list as well. While several of the provisions to which the concept refers have a long history especially in poor relief , the notion of "social security" itself is a fairly recent one.
The earliest examples of use date from the 19th century. In Jewish tradition, charity represented by tzedakah is a matter of religious obligation rather than benevolence. Contemporary charity is regarded as a continuation of the Biblical Maaser Ani , or poor- tithe , as well as Biblical practices, such as permitting the poor to glean the corners of a field and harvest during the Shmita Sabbatical year. Voluntary charity, along with prayer and repentance , is befriended to ameliorate the consequences of bad acts. The Song dynasty c. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson , "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor The concepts of welfare and pension were put into practice in the early Islamic law  [ failed verification ] of the Caliphate as forms of Zakat charity , one of the Five Pillars of Islam , since the time of the Rashidun caliph Umar in the 7th century.
The taxes including Zakat and Jizya collected in the treasury of an Islamic government were used to provide income for the needy, including the poor , elderly , orphans , widowed persons, and the disabled. According to the Islamic jurist Al-Ghazali Algazel, — , the government was also expected to store up food supplies in every region in case a disaster or famine occurred. There is relatively little statistical data on transfer payments before the High Middle Ages.
In the medieval period and until the Industrial Revolution , the function of welfare payments in Europe was principally achieved through private giving or charity. In those early times, there was a much broader group considered to be in poverty as compared to the 21st century.
Early welfare programs in Europe included the English Poor Law of , which gave parishes the responsibility for providing poverty relief assistance to the poor. It was predominantly in the late 19th and early 20th centuries that an organized system of state welfare provision was introduced in many countries.
Otto von Bismarck , Chancellor of Germany, introduced one of the first welfare systems for the working classes in The United States did not have an organized welfare system until the Great Depression , when emergency relief measures were introduced under President Franklin D. Even then, Roosevelt's New Deal focused predominantly on a program of providing work and stimulating the economy through public spending on projects, rather than on cash payment.
This policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:. This multi-dimensional deprivation could be affecting less active poor persons such as the elderly or the disabled and active poor persons such as the unemployed.
This broad framework makes this concept more acceptable in developing countries than the concept of social security. Social security is more applicable in the conditions, where large numbers of citizens depend on the formal economy for their livelihood. Through a defined contribution, this social security may be managed. But, in the context of widespread informal economy, formal social security arrangements are almost absent for the vast majority of the working population.
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Besides, in developing countries, the state's capacity to reach the vast majority of the poor people may be limited because of its limited infrastructure and resources. In such a context, multiple agencies that could provide for social protection, including health care, is critical for policy consideration.
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Collaborative research from the Institute of Development Studies debating Social Protection from a global perspective, suggests that advocates for social protection fall into two broad categories: "instrumentalists" and "activists". Instrumentalists argue that extreme poverty , inequality , and vulnerability is dysfunctional in the achievement of development targets such as the MDGs. In this view, social protection is about putting in place risk management mechanisms that will compensate for incomplete or missing insurance and other markets, until a time that private insurance can play a more prominent role in that society.
Activist arguments view the persistence of extreme poverty, inequality, and vulnerability as symptoms of social injustice and structural inequality and see social protection as a right of citizenship. Targeted welfare is a necessary step between humanitarianism and the ideal of a " guaranteed minimum income " where entitlement extends beyond cash or food transfers and is based on citizenship, not philanthropy.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the general concept of social wellbeing and the systems that ensure this. For specific systems named "Social Security" and other uses, see Social Security. Main article: Unemployment benefits. Main article: Social protection. The procedure of payment and the rate of tax are determined depending on the type of economic activity and the selected tax payment regime. Performers of economic activity, who are payers of personal income tax, must submit an annual income tax return to the Electronic Declaration System of the State Revenue Service.
The object of mandatory contributions of an employer and employee shall be all calculated employment income from which personal income tax must be deducted. The mandatory contribution rate shell be Employees make statutory contributions through employers: employers shall deduct the contributions that employees must pay and transfer these amounts to a special budget account.
There are cases where an employer has the need to temporarily for a period of up to two years send his employee to a specific job in another Member State. If the employee has been sent to work to another Member State for a period less than two years, the employee may continue to pay social security contributions in his own country.
The Economic Benefits of Family and Medical Leave Insurance - Center for American Progress
If an employee is employed in two or more Member States, the social security contributions will be paid in the Member State in which employee has closer links. In both situations, mentioned above, it is necessary to receive certificate A1 according to the Regulation. The application of social security schemes including pensions to persons and their family members moving within the EU, European Economic Area and Switzerland is realized according to the principle of equal attitude and taking into account the requirements of EU directives, including the principles of aggregation of insurance and export of benefits.
The bilateral agreements in the sphere of social security including pensions , up to the present moment, are concluded between Latvia and the United States only regarding pensions , Canada and the Ukraine. Regarding the 3rd country persons from other countries and their family members, the legislation of Latvia will be applied concerning the social security.
Sickness benefit, on the basis of sick — leave A, is paid by employer until the 10 th day of sickness. Sickness benefit shall be paid for not longer than 26 weeks if sickness is all the time, but on the basis of the State Medical Commission for the Assessment of Health Condition and Working Ability the opinion of the cost of sickness benefits may be temporarily extended to 52 weeks.
Sickness benefit on the basis of sick — leave B, is paid from the funds of the State Social Insurance Agency. Sickness benefit for sick child care is granted and paid for the period of Social Security incapacity for work from the 1st to the 14th day and from the 15th to the 21st day, also in the cases when the child receives health care at the hospital. Insurance Indemnity Related to Accident at Work or Occupational Disease include: sickness benefit; compensation for the loss of capacity for work; lump sum benefit; compensation for additional expenses, that are connected with medical treatment and rehabilitation, care, purchasing and repair of technical aids, travel costs for visiting the physician.
Persons entitled to receive: socially insured, who due to a job injury or occupational disease who has a temporary incapacity for work, loss of ability to work or death. Maternity benefit paid before and after childbirth and can be requested by expectant mothers who:. The grounds for awarding the benefit are: application for receiving the benefit and sickness leave B work Disability Form B. The benefit will be paid in two parts — before and after childbirth. The first part is paid for 56 or 70 days of the maternity leave.
The Economics of Social Insurance and Employee Benefits
The benefit for 70 calendar days is paid to expectant mothers who are undergoing medical supervision from their 12th week of pregnancy. The second part — for 56 or 70 calendar days — is paid after childbirth.
The benefit for 70 days can be obtained, if: a the mother has had health problems during her pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum period; b two or more babies are born. The maximum period for which the maternity benefit can be obtained is days. If an employment relationship is terminated due to winding-up of the workplace, the maternity benefit shall be granted, if the maternity leave has started not later than within days after the termination of the employment relationship.
The average insurance contributions salary of an employee is calculated for a period of 12 calendar months ending two months before the month in which the pregnancy leave began.
The benefit must be requested within 6 months from the first day of the maternity leave. The benefit shall be transferred to the account in a credit institution or postal payment system PNS indicated in your application. People entitled to receive the allowance for child care: citizens of Latvia, non-citizens, foreigners and stateless persons permanently residing in Latvia, to whom a personal identity code has been granted.
The allowance is not granted to people, who have received a temporary residence permit. Unemployed status may be obtained at the State Employment Agency. An application for unemployment benefit you can submit in one of the divisions of the State Social Insurance Agency. The benefit shall be calculated in proportion to the total length of the insurance employment record and in accordance with the income from which unemployment contributions have been paid:.
Since July there is a three tier pension system in Latvia, it includes the 1st tier state compulsory unfunded pension scheme , the 2nd tier state funded pension scheme and the 3rd tier private voluntary pension scheme. All persons making social insurance contributions are involved in the 1st tier. Social insurance contributions of those who participate in the 2nd pension tier through chosen fund managers are invested into the financial market and saved for the pension of the specific contributor. The third pension tier ensures the possibility for every individual according to his free choice to create additional savings for his pension in the private pension funds.
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